Kategori arşivi: English

Therapy? More Like TheRAPEy

I bet everyone has heard of weird and controversial therapy methods, but I have a strong feeling that most of you haven’t heard of this one, the one that killed. A therapy called ‘rebirthing’ was invented by Leonard Orr in the 1970s after he supposedly re-lived his birth during a bath. Obb claims that correct breathing techniques can be used as a method of catharsis to cleanse traumatic childhood memories that have been repressed. Speaking of, isn’t it obvious that Obb was deeply influenced by the father of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud? Considering that he has also mentioned and studied on repressed childhood memories. The difference here between Freud and Obb, though, is that Freud tried to help recall these traumatic memories because he believed that this was the only way to cure the ‘hysterics’, however, Obb believed not in recollection but rather direct catharsis. He stood behind the idea that rebirthing aided people to regain their ultimate longing: to feel as though you are the center of all, just as the common belief of humanism during the renaissance. It also helped the person feel strong, confident and powerful -all of the feeling of which he or she was deprived due to a childhood trauma.

However, although this method might have seemed to work for some -as do all controversial therapy methods, rebirthing caused the death of a little girl called Candace Newmaker. Some have heard of the case of Candace Newmaker as ‘the girl who was sat on and killed’, but let’s go more in depth. Candace was a 10 year old adoptee who suffered from attachment disorder. Her newly adoptive mother, strong believer in pseudoscientific therapy methods, decided to try one that supposedly cured the child who had difficulty attaching to her adoptive mother by making her feel like he or she was ‘reborn’. To do the therapy her adoptive mother, Jeane Elizabeth Newmaker, called Connell Watkins, a pioneer of the treatment for children with ‘attachment disorder’, and her partner Julie Ponder, a marriage and family therapist. The therapy started on April 18th 2000. Candace layed down on a blue flannel sheet and got into the fetal position. Then Candace was bound in the sheet, the ends twisted above her head and held by Ponder. She was covered by pillows and four adults began pressing on her. Candace was requested to imagine herself as a baby in her mothers womb. Candace’s mother continually expressed how excited she was to be giving birth to a baby girl and how she was going to love her and hold her forever. Candace was asked if she believed what her mother was saying and when she responded positively, her ‘rebirthing’ commenced. Ponder stated that her head had to come out of the sheets first, and then her whole body. However, Candace repetitively screamed that she couldn’t do it and whoever was sitting on her was suffocating her. “I can’t do it. I can’t do it! I can’t breathe. I can’t breathe!” were the sentences that she repeated until after 40 minutes, when she failed to respond. Ponder and Watkins continually chanted that she was a quitter but after a 20 minute period of utter silence they decided to unwrap Candace to discover that she was covered in her own vomit and dead.

The case of Candace Newmaker has made this therapy method extremely controversial amongst society, and it is clear that nearly no one ever uses this method anymore. It is unfortunate that the bizarreness of this method had to be comprehended after the decease of a little girl.

-Ceylin Donat (Konuk Yazar)

The NotSoLittle Mermaid

With eyes cast toward the mystic depths of the ocean, mankind imbued the creatures that have emerged from this unknown palace with a majesty befitting their wonder. One such story that has repeatedly rolled off the tongue of sailors and storytellers alike has been that of the mermaid, beauty of the sea and temptress of the waters. In the same way that the Greeks weaved intricate stories of Gods making mischief in the mortal world, so too have sailors gossiped of these false beauties, mysterious and enchanting from afar but only masks of the true danger lurking below. The great unknown of the waters below fed fuel to these tall tales, and it only takes a clear view past the murky waters to debase these fishy tales.

Before debunking the existence of these magnificent creatures though, I would first like to explain what a mermaid is.  A mermaid is an amphibious creature that is, in the simplest terms, half human and half fish.  They have been around for nearly five thousand years and have been a part of various cultures and myths. One of the first mentions of the term merman was in Mesopotamia: Oannes, the mythical being who had the form of a fish but the feet of a man, was an aquatic creature who thought mankind wisdom. Other than those of the Babylonian culture, there have been mentions of mermaids in Russian , African, Arabian, Indian, Ancient Greek, British and Persian cultures. Usually depicted in the movies and fairy tales as beautiful and flawless; the mermaid, contrary to what is illustrated, has always been viewed by sailors (especially British sailors) as vicious and deadly because they consider mermaids to be bad omen that indicate a forthcoming thunderstorm. Another very common story told amongst Arabian sailors is that the mermaids have hypnotic effects.  It is believed by them that mermaids use their irresistibly beautiful voices to lure the sailors into their traps and feed on the sailors flesh.

But even though the idea of an underwater beauty luring unsuspecting sailors to a watery grave may seem strangely alluring, one should look deeply to find the true cause for these outlandish stories, and even deeper to figure out if the modern-day claims are scientific or not.  Before diving in to the disproving procedure, one must first analyze the data; the most crucial step to detecting whether the claims made about something are correct or, as Carl Sagan would call it, baloney. So what kind of data do we have to be able to prove the existence (or non-existence) of mermaids?

“One general law, leading to the advancement of all organic beings, namely, multiply, vary, let the strongest live and the weakest die.” (Charles Darwin 1859)  Let’s take a trip back to 1859, when Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species.  Even to our day, his ideas remain controversial; but still, very well supported.  His natural selection theory is one of the best corroborated theories in the history of science.  One should consider this theory before claiming the existence of a creature.  So that is what we will do, we will see if mermaids fit in with the theory of natural selection or not.  Natural selection is a process by which organism can change as a result of normal behavioral or heritable traits to allow the organism to adapt to its environment in order to survive. People tend to lean towards the idea that people come from sea, mermaids live in the sea, ergo it is possible that there are mermaids; however just by thinking about this basic definition of natural selection, it is easy to comprehend why it is irrational that mermaids ever existed or still exist.  First of all, there would have had to be a reason for humanoids to develop the ‘half fish’ form in order to survive. And even if they once have developed this kind of a form, it wouldn’t have lasted because it isn’t practical enough for survival.  The tails would have had to be extremely strong for the facile movement of the mermaids and they would have had to had gills.  Since the ‘mermaid’ we know of doesn’t possess any of these characteristics, it is likely to assume that they haven’t made it through natural selection or have never even existed because based on the natural selection theory, the dominant species survive, since the humans survived, obviously, it is illogical to think that mermaids exist.

Probably one of the first ‘scientific’ reports on mermaids was that of the Animal Planet in 2012.  That documentary was filmed by ‘scientists’ using a phone camera.  Despite the cheap footage, people actually believed that what they were watching was actual proof that mermaids exist.  This is how vulnerable we are to believing every non-scientific claim we hear.  These kind of people are the ones whom Shermer would make fun of.  Firstly because they directly believed the first thing they saw on television without even having the slightest skepticism about whether the claims being made were scientific or non-scientific. They didn’t question the reliability of the source but that doesn’t mean that we shouldn’t.  Let’s briefly go over the claims being made and start debunking the existence of mermaids.

The first thing that every skeptic should do is to check the reliability of the source of the claims being made.  Take the example of the Animal Planet; the TV channel might be considered to be partially reliable but the paid actors they used to act like scientists are absolutely non-reliable.  Hence the most recent ‘scientific discovery’ of mermaids turned out to be a hoax.  Another way to prove that these claims are non-scientific is by asking whether the claimants personal beliefs and biases drive the conclusion, or vice versa. The fact that most of the children born in the 1980s grew up with the Little Mermaid is an explanation to why people are so inclined to believe that mermaids exist.  So probably most of the modern claims made on mermaids are biased.  Also, as I have stated and explained previously, the idea that mermaids exist doesn’t fit in with what we know about the world or science.  The existence of these half-human, half-fish like creatures is irrational and inconvenient.  Only with the simplest three questions we are able to seriously debunk the claims being made on the existence of mermaids.

So, it is obvious that we do not know anything about mermaids -yet.  But as we know, unexplained does not mean inexplicable. Also, considering that we have only explored 5% of the ocean shows us that we have many mysteries yet to solve.  As far as I’m concerned, all the claims being made by pseudoscientists on mermaids are a hoax, but this does not mean that there aren’t creatures that we are yet to encounter in the depths of the unknown.

 

-Ceylin Donat (Konuk Yazar)

How Horses Think

Horses are more mild-mannered, accustomed to humans and are more sensitive than we think. They acquire habits very quickly and maintain them. They trust their own ‘guts’ to protect themselves. They sense danger in the face of novelties. In dangerous situations, they find solutions in an easy fashion and quickly escape.

 

You can understand what your horse thinks and feels from how his ears look, how it uses its feet, how he holds its tail, the width of his nostrils, what he does with his teeth and mouth, not to mention the length and the intensity of his neighing.

 

Horses have strong memories: they remember every move a rider makes, so you can be your horse’s best friend or worst enemy. Younger ones have the urge to imitate older ones. Horses are easily influenced by each other. If a horse is scared, yours will be influenced by it too, even if he can’t see what it is that scares him. If the rider maintains his or her calmness, a horse can feel safe again.

 

Every rider should know the reasons, the symptoms and the solutions of the horse’s fear. A horse’s attention is often like that of a child at school. The distraction of a horse that has been trained for an hour continuously is very natural. You should rest him for a couple of minutes every 15 to 20 minutes. As long as he is not treated badly or scared, horses are gentle, sweet-natured and strong at all times. They understand whether the rider is a novice or knows what he or she is doing. Horses also look at how the rider responds to their disobeying. Now, you can communicate with a horse!

 

-Aleyna

Zeigarnik Effect

A last goodbye, a last hug, a last kissWhy is it so important for us to have closure? Why do we feel less vacant when we get that infamous last goodbye? Why cant we forget the people we havent had the chance to say goodbye to or have a proper closure with? The same question goes for events or tasks too. Well, the simplest way to explain this is with the psychological phenomena called the Zeigarnik Effect. The Zeigarnik Effect is the tendency to experience intrusive thoughts about an objective that was once pursued and left incomplete (Baumeister & Bushman, 2008, pg. 122).

Bluma Zeigarnik, a Russian psychologist, found that waiters remembered orders only as long as the order was in the process of being served. Heres how he figured this out: In the mid 1920s, a group of psychologists went to a restaurant. The populous group ordered their meals but the intriguing part is only one waiter took their order, and he didnt even write down what they asked for. Then their meal arrived, they ate and exited the restaurant. Later that day one of the psychologists went back to the restaurant and found the same waiter. The psychologist asked the waiter how he was able to remember all of the orders without messing them up. The waiter, confused, admitted that he couldnt remember the orders he had recently took, let alone the group of psychologists. He told the psychologists that he wrote the orders down in his mind, delivered them to their designated client and then erased the order off his mind. After giving this event some thought, Zeigarnik and his colleagues concluded that incomplete tasks occupied the human brain. It all comes from our innate urge to complete things. We usually dont like tasks to be left incomplete; we push our limits to accomplish goals. This is why the stronger the urge, the stronger the Zeigarnik Effect if the goal is not accomplished. Its all about motivation.

An example that most of us can relate to is the fact that we find it difficult to forget about our exes. When one breaks up with someone, it gives one the feeling that ones goal wasnt accomplished and that it was a failed task thus leading to dissonance in the brain and ending with the Zeigarnik Effect. It is a proven fact that we remember the break-up more vividly than the first date because one is a failure whilst the other is an accomplishment. We dont bother remembering the goals weve accomplished, our brain is more concentrated on the incomplete.

Everyone has experienced this phenomena, whether they knew what it was or now. But at least now you do. Tell me, wouldnt you be bothered if the sentence ended just in the middle of the

-Ceylin Donat (Konuk Yazar)

How To Be Parisian * Wherever You Are

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How To Be Parisian * Wherever You Are

Hiç nasıl Parisli bir kadın zerafetini nasıl taşıyabilirim ya da o cesur havaya sahip olabilirim diye merak ettiniz mi? Eğer benim gibi Fransız kadınlarının birçok özelliğine hayransanız ve imreniyorsanız; How to be Parisian başucunuzun vazgeçilmezi olacak gibi görünüyor.

Fransız kadınlarıyla başlayalım. “Nedir onların olayı?” ya da “Ay amma abartılıyorlar.” düşüncesi sizi sardıysa biraz açıklığa kavuşturmakta fayda var. Beni en çok etkileyen şey belli bir kalıptan sapmamaları. Kötü anlamdaki kalıplaşma değil bu tabii ki; benim bahsettiğim kalıp daha çok stil konusunda aynı çizgiyi takip etmeleri aşk hayatında yeri geldiğinde duygusal yeri geldiğinde katı ve gururlu olmayı bilmeleri, doğallıktan yana olmaları,… Çok fazla yönleriyle karşı koyulmaz bir hayranlık duyuyorum, hayalimdeki kadın modelini en iyi çizen örnek Parisienne kadınlar olduğu için bu kitap belki de kitaplarımın baş tacı oldu.

Gerek tavır, gerek stil, gerek yaşlanma, görünüş, güzellik olsun. Aklınıza gelebilecek her konu ve Parisienne yaklaşımı derinlemesine anlatıyor ve kesinlikle bağımlılık yapıyor.

En sevdiğim parçalara ait paragrafları sizinle paylaşmak istiyorum.

Tavır Üstüne:

“Embrace your inner snob. (Because let’s face it, that’s who you are.)”

“The Parisienne is never satisfied.”

“The Parisienne already knows what she must think: the opposite of what you think, no matter what.”

Tarz Üstüne:
“When it comes to revealing herself, she follows one golden rule: less is definitely more…A skirt that rides ever so slightly up her thigh when she sits down in a café; a wide-necked tee that slips down her shoulder as she waves for the waiter; the surreptitious hint of her breasts when she leans down to pick up her bag.”

“You don’t have to spend a decade’s worth of salary on your wardrobe, or flaunt designer brands the whole time. All you need is one signature item: the one you wear when you need to feel strong.”

Emin olun, elinizden bırakamayacaksınız.

-Defne Anlaş (Konuk Yazar)

Game of Thrones FIRST FOUR EPISODES ONLINE!!

After waiting GOT for 10 months, just 1 day before season premiere, 4 EPISODES leaked in internet. You can access first four episodes everywhere in internet right now. They are not 1080p but still, they are fine.

Including me and my father, all fans are between two options right now. One side is to watch and finish 10 months of misery. But GUILT IS KILLING ME. Watching all those episodes in one night, ahhhh. But what am I going to do for a whole four weeks? WAIT. If I don’t watch, there is a very high possibility of hearing all the things that will happen, soo I have to stay away from internet, social media for 4 weeks.

Someone on tumblr made it pretty clear what we feel right now:

seriously i feel REALLY FUCKING GUILTY AND I HATE THIS. I SHOULDN’T BE WATCHING THIS BUT IT’S EITHER WATCH AND REMAIN SPOILER FREE OR DON’T WATCH AND AVOID SOCIAL MEDIA FOR 4 WEEKS OR HOWEVER MANY EPISODES LEAKED

Whether you choose to gorge yourself (illegally) on half the season at once tonight, or wait til tomorrow’s premiere and then eke out the torture one week at a time, we wish you luck. Living in a spoiler-filled Internet after today won’t be easy for any of us.

But spoilers are coming.

PS: I just finished 2nd episode and I am waiting 3th to fill. No spoilers for me!! *haha*

valar morghulis

-Aleyna

Best modern art galleries in Istanbul, part1

Garaj

Tucked away in the backstreets of Beyoğlu, Garaj is a contemporary performance art space – all exposed concrete and cold lighting. When I found out this place, I thought that it was very different and believe me, i was right. It has a ballsy manifesto, and holds events like performing arts festivals. There was one about dictators and corruption, called “political games”. But these revolutionaries like to have a good time as well. In a neighbourhood mostly occupied by bars and clubs, Garaj lets its hair down with events such as B-Boy competitions and concerts from visiting indie bands. You should check it out.

Address: Kaymakam Reşat Bey Sokak 11 Phone: +90 212 244 4499, garajistanbul.org -prices vary according to the show
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Istanbul Modern

This huge former warehouse on the shores of the Bosphorus is the most prominent of Istanbul’s contemporary galleries. A permanent exhibition takes visitors through a history of modern Turkish art and there are increasingly important international shows. But you sometimes have to wonder if the main attraction for many is really the restaurant, and its incredible view of our old city across the water. I think it might be…

Address: Meclis-i Mebusan Caddesi. Liman İşletmeleri, Sahasi Antrepo 4, Karaköy Phone: +90 212 334 7300, istanbulmodern.org, 14₺ ($5,3). Open Tue-Sun 10am-6pm, Thur closes 8pm
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Pera Museum

The main collection consist of Orientalist paintings, old weights and Ottoman tiles, but modern art fans should keep an eye on the Pera’s travelling exhibitions by the likes of Picasso, Botero and Chagal. There was the famous exhibition of Andy Warhol last year, for example. You experience the shows from top to bottom, working your way downwards over several floors of bright, white, well-polished museum space. It is pretty close to a place of style, romance and class and comfort. Yes I am talking about the Victorian hotel building; the famous Pera Palace Hotel. Address: Meşrutiyet Caddesi 65, 34443 Tepebaşi, Beyoğlu  Phone: +90 212 334 9900, peramuzesi.org.tr, entrance adult 20₺ ($7,5). Tuesday-Saturday 10am-7pm, Sunday noon-6pm, closed on Mondays

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